Impressionism / Post - Impressionism
Both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism refer to influential artistic movements arising in late 19th-century France. Impressionists rejected the system of state-controlled academies and salons in favor of independent exhibitions, the first of which was held in 1874. They painted contemporary landscapes and scenes of modern life, especially of bourgeois leisure and recreation, instead of drawing on past art or historical and mythological narrative for their inspiration. Interested in capturing transitory moments, the Impressionists paid attention to the fleeting effect of light, atmosphere and movement. They continued the break that the Realists began from the illusionist tradition by emphasizing the paint on the surface of the canvas, flattening the sense of perspective through a lack of tonal modeling, and using daring cropped perspectives which were influenced by Japanese prints. Confronting nature and modern city life directly, the Impressionists differed from their antecedents because they painted en plein air (in the open air) and used a palette of pure colors. The term Impressionism is used to describe a group of painters living in Paris who worked between c. 1860 and 1900. These artists, such as Frédéric Bazille, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Camille Pissarro, Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Mary Cassatt, sparked an international group of followers and revolutionized Western conceptions of painting.
Post-Impressionism is a term used to describe the reaction in the 1880s against Impressionism. It was led by Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Georges Seurat. The Post-Impressionists rejected Impressionism’s concern with the spontaneous and naturalistic rendering of light and color. Instead they favored an emphasis on more symbolic content, formal order and structure. Similar to the Impressionists, however, they stressed the artificiality of the picture. The Post-Impressionists also believed that color could be independent from form and composition as an emotional and aesthetic bearer of meaning. Both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism include some of the most famous works of modern art such as Monet’s Waterlilies, a Series of Waterscapesand van Gogh’s Starry Night. Impressionism and Post-Impressionism continue to be some of the most well-known and beloved of artistic movements.
Robert Henri USA
Born Robert Henry Cozad in Cincinnati, Ohio, Robert Henri became one of the leading personalities in American art, known for his teaching skills, ethnic portraits, especially spirited children, and insistence that artists should adhere to social realism and give rein to their own artistic instincts. During his growing up years,...
Louis Valtat France
A leading founder of the Fauvist movement, Louis Valtat was an independent and versatile painter. Fauvist principles required a total liberation of local color in favor of palette of unmixed paint used straight from the tube, often applied with firm, even violent brushwork. Forms are simplified and flattened, giving precedence...
Francois Gall Paris, France
Francois Gall, Hungarian by birth, became a naturalized French citizen in 1942. He is best known as an impressionist painter in the pure French tradition. He began his artistic studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Rome and was awarded a scholarship in 1930 from the Hungarian government....
Maurice de Vlaminck Maurice Vlaminck and Andre Derain were good friends and neighbors in France; they made a spectacular pair. Both were huge and both wore conspicuous clothes. One of Vlaminck's favorite items of costume was a painted wooden necktie. They lived and worked in a seaside suburb called Chatou and invited Matisse...
Hugues Claude Pissarro France
H. Claude Pissarro, grandson of the 19th century French impressionist Camille Pissarro, is the third generation standard bearer of the Pissarro line of painters. H. Claude’s uncle and father, both became important figures in the post-impressionist school of painting. H. Claude Pissarro was born in 1935 in the fashionable western...
Henri Baptiste Lebasque France
Born in France at Champigne, Henri Lebasque became known as a painter who spread "joy and light" and for works that were intimate in subject matter and pleasing in color and form. He was in Paris in 1885, when he was age 20, and there he studied at the Ecole...
Martha Walter Martha Walter was a well-known Philadelphia-born Impressionist who specialized in light hearted, colorful beach scenes especially of Gloucester, Coney Island, Atlantic City and the French Coast. She went to Girls High School, and from 1895 to 1898, studied at the Pennsylvania Museum & School of Industrial Art, now The University...
Abraham Manievich Ukraine
Abraham A. Manievich was known as a Post- Impressionist landscape painter. His subjects were Ukrainian and Lithuanian village and country scenes, and street scenes of Moscow, Kiev, and Petrograd. He painted in a bold Fauvist style, and exhibited with the important French Fauvists. He received critical acclaim for his first...